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1 .\" $Xorg: mkdepend.man,v 1.5 2001/02/09 02:03:16 xorgcvs Exp $
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26 .\" $XFree86: xc/config/makedepend/mkdepend.man,v 1.7 2002/12/14 02:39:45 dawes Exp $
27 .\"
28 .TH MAKEDEPEND 1 __xorgversion__
29 .UC 4
30 .SH NAME
31 makedepend \- create dependencies in makefiles
32 .SH SYNOPSIS
33 .B makedepend
34 [
35 .BI \-D name\fB=\fPdef
36 ] [
37 .BI \-D name
38 ] [
39 .BI \-I includedir
40 ] [
41 .BI \-Y includedir
42 ] [
43 .B \-a
44 ] [
45 .BI \-f makefile
46 ] [
47 .BI \-include \ file
48 ] [
49 .BI \-o objsuffix
50 ] [
51 .BI \-p objprefix
52 ] [
53 .BI \-s string
54 ] [
55 .BI \-w width
56 ] [
57 .B \-v
58 ] [
59 .B \-m
60 ] [
61 \-\^\-
62 .I otheroptions
63 \-\^\-
64 ]
65 .I sourcefile
66 \&.\|.\|.
67 .br
68 .SH DESCRIPTION
69 The
70 .B makedepend
71 program reads each
72 .I sourcefile
73 in sequence and parses it like a C-preprocessor,
74 processing all
75 .I #include,
76 .I #define,
77 .I #undef,
78 .I #ifdef,
79 .I #ifndef,
80 .I #endif,
81 .I #if,
82 .I #elif
83 and
84 .I #else
85 directives so that it can correctly tell which
86 .I #include,
87 directives would be used in a compilation.
88 Any
89 .I #include,
90 directives can reference files having other
91 .I #include
92 directives, and parsing will occur in these files as well.
93 .PP
94 Every file that a
95 .I sourcefile
96 includes,
97 directly or indirectly,
98 is what
99 .B makedepend
100 calls a \fIdependency.\fP
101 These dependencies are then written to a
102 .I makefile
103 in such a way that
104 .B make(1)
105 will know which object files must be recompiled when a dependency has changed.
106 .PP
107 By default,
108 .B makedepend
109 places its output in the file named
110 .I makefile
111 if it exists, otherwise
112 .I Makefile.
113 An alternate makefile may be specified with the
114 .B \-f
115 option.
116 It first searches the makefile for
117 the line
118 .sp
119 \& # DO NOT DELETE THIS LINE \-\^\- make depend depends on it.
120 .sp
121 or one provided with the
122 .B \-s
123 option,
124 as a delimiter for the dependency output.
125 If it finds it, it will delete everything
126 following this to the end of the makefile
127 and put the output after this line.
128 If it doesn't find it, the program
129 will append the string to the end of the makefile
130 and place the output following that.
131 For each
132 .I sourcefile
133 appearing on the command line,
134 .B makedepend
135 puts lines in the makefile of the form
136 .sp
137 sourcefile.o:\0dfile .\|.\|.
138 .sp
139 Where \fIsourcefile.o\fP is the name from the command
140 line with its suffix replaced with ``.o'',
141 and \fIdfile\fP is a dependency discovered in a
142 .I #include
143 directive while parsing
144 .I sourcefile
145 or one of the files it included.
146 .SH EXAMPLE
147 Normally,
148 .B makedepend
149 will be used in a makefile target so that typing ``make depend'' will
150 bring the dependencies up to date for the makefile.
151 For example,
152 .nf
153 SRCS\0=\0file1.c\0file2.c\0.\|.\|.
154 CFLAGS\0=\0\-O\0\-DHACK\0\-I\^.\^.\^/foobar\0\-xyz
155 depend:
156 makedepend\0\-\^\-\0$(CFLAGS)\0\-\^\-\0$(SRCS)
157 .fi
158 .SH OPTIONS
159 The program
160 will ignore any option that it does not understand so that you may use
161 the same arguments that you would for
162 .B cc(1).
163 .TP 5
164 .B \-D\fIname\fP=\fIdef\fP \fRor\fP \-D\fIname\fP
165 Define.
166 This places a definition for
167 .I name
168 in
169 .B makedepend's
170 symbol table.
171 Without
172 .I =def\|
173 the symbol becomes defined as ``1''.
174 .TP 5
175 .B \-I\fIincludedir\fP
176 Include directory.
177 This option tells
178 .B makedepend
179 to prepend
180 .I includedir
181 to its list of directories to search when it encounters
182 a
183 .I #include
184 directive.
185 By default,
186 .B makedepend
187 only searches the standard include directories (usually /usr/include
188 and possibly a compiler-dependent directory).
189 .TP 5
190 .B \-Y\fIincludedir\fP
191 Replace all of the standard include directories with the single specified
192 include directory; you can omit the
193 .I includedir
194 to simply prevent searching the standard include directories.
195 .TP 5
196 .B \-a
197 Append the dependencies to the end of the file instead of replacing them.
198 .TP 5
199 .B \-f\fImakefile\fP
200 Filename.
201 This allows you to specify an alternate makefile in which
202 .B makedepend
203 can place its output.
204 Specifying ``\-'' as the file name (i.e., \fB\-f\-\fP) sends the
205 output to standard output instead of modifying an existing file.
206 .TP 5
207 .B \-include \fIfile\fP
208 Process file as input, and include all the resulting output
209 before processing the regular input file. This has the same
210 affect as if the specified file is an include statement that
211 appears before the very first line of the regular input file.
212 .TP 5
213 .B \-o\fIobjsuffix\fP
214 Object file suffix.
215 Some systems may have object files whose suffix is something other
216 than ``.o''.
217 This option allows you to specify another suffix, such as
218 ``.b'' with
219 .I \-o.b
220 or ``:obj''
221 with
222 .I \-o:obj
223 and so forth.
224 .TP 5
225 .B \-p\fIobjprefix\fP
226 Object file prefix.
227 The prefix is prepended to the name of the object file. This is
228 usually used to designate a different directory for the object file.
229 The default is the empty string.
230 .TP 5
231 .B \-s\fIstring\fP
232 Starting string delimiter.
233 This option permits you to specify
234 a different string for
235 .B makedepend
236 to look for in the makefile.
237 .TP 5
238 .B \-w\fIwidth\fP
239 Line width.
240 Normally,
241 .B makedepend
242 will ensure that every output line that it writes will be no wider than
243 78 characters for the sake of readability.
244 This option enables you to change this width.
245 .TP 5
246 .B \-v
247 Verbose operation.
248 This option causes
249 .B makedepend
250 to emit the list of files included by each input file.
251 .TP 5
252 .B \-m
253 Warn about multiple inclusion.
254 This option causes
255 .B makedepend
256 to produce a warning if any input file includes another file more than
257 once. In previous versions of
258 .B makedepend
259 this was the default behavior; the default has been changed to better
260 match the behavior of the C compiler, which does not consider multiple
261 inclusion to be an error. This option is provided for backward
262 compatibility, and to aid in debugging problems related to multiple
263 inclusion.
264 .TP 5
265 .B "\-\^\- \fIoptions\fP \-\^\-"
266 If
267 .B makedepend
268 encounters a double hyphen (\-\^\-) in the argument list,
269 then any unrecognized argument following it
270 will be silently ignored; a second double hyphen terminates this
271 special treatment.
272 In this way,
273 .B makedepend
274 can be made to safely ignore esoteric compiler arguments that might
275 normally be found in a CFLAGS
276 .B make
277 macro (see the
278 .B EXAMPLE
279 section above).
280 All options that
281 .B makedepend
282 recognizes and appear between the pair of double hyphens
283 are processed normally.
284 .SH ALGORITHM
285 The approach used in this program enables it to run an order of magnitude
286 faster than any other ``dependency generator'' I have ever seen.
287 Central to this performance are two assumptions:
288 that all files compiled by a single
289 makefile will be compiled with roughly the same
290 .I \-I
291 and
292 .I \-D
293 options;
294 and that most files in a single directory will include largely the
295 same files.
296 .PP
297 Given these assumptions,
298 .B makedepend
299 expects to be called once for each makefile, with
300 all source files that are maintained by the
301 makefile appearing on the command line.
302 It parses each source and include
303 file exactly once, maintaining an internal symbol table
304 for each.
305 Thus, the first file on the command line will take an amount of time
306 proportional to the amount of time that a normal C preprocessor takes.
307 But on subsequent files, if it encounters an include file
308 that it has already parsed, it does not parse it again.
309 .PP
310 For example,
311 imagine you are compiling two files,
312 .I file1.c
313 and
314 .I file2.c,
315 they each include the header file
316 .I header.h,
317 and the file
318 .I header.h
319 in turn includes the files
320 .I def1.h
321 and
322 .I def2.h.
323 When you run the command
324 .sp
325 makedepend\0file1.c\0file2.c
326 .sp
327 .B makedepend
328 will parse
329 .I file1.c
330 and consequently,
331 .I header.h
332 and then
333 .I def1.h
334 and
335 .I def2.h.
336 It then decides that the dependencies for this file are
337 .sp
338 file1.o:\0header.h\0def1.h\0def2.h
339 .sp
340 But when the program parses
341 .I file2.c
342 and discovers that it, too, includes
343 .I header.h,
344 it does not parse the file,
345 but simply adds
346 .I header.h,
347 .I def1.h
348 and
349 .I def2.h
350 to the list of dependencies for
351 .I file2.o.
352 .SH "SEE ALSO"
353 cc(1), make(1)
354 .SH BUGS
355 .B makedepend
356 parses, but does not currently evaluate, the SVR4 #predicate(token-list)
357 preprocessor expression; such expressions are simply assumed to be true.
358 This may cause the wrong
359 .I #include
360 directives to be evaluated.
361 .PP
362 Imagine you are parsing two files,
363 say
364 .I file1.c
365 and
366 .I file2.c,
367 each includes the file
368 .I def.h.
369 The list of files that
370 .I def.h
371 includes might truly be different when
372 .I def.h
373 is included by
374 .I file1.c
375 than when it is included by
376 .I file2.c.
377 But once
378 .B makedepend
379 arrives at a list of dependencies for a file,
380 it is cast in concrete.
381 .SH AUTHOR
382 Todd Brunhoff, Tektronix, Inc. and MIT Project Athena

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